Paying Attention

Directions:
Select the BEST response alternative for each of the questions below.


1. The task of shadowing involves:
A) immediately repeating, word for word, the contents of a message.
B) drawing the mirror image of a simple sketch.
C) copying the movements of a target individual.
D) repeating back, from memory, a message heard some minutes earlier.
2. Tasks involving dichotic listening are tasks in which:
A) two different visual stimuli are presented.
B) two different auditory messages are presented, one to each ear.
C) participants must identify subthreshold sounds.
D) participants must dichotomize sounds into distinct categories.
3. Participants are instructed to fixate on a point on a computer screen and report on a "+" sign that appears off to one side. After several trials, the fixation point is replaced by a new shape, but the participants do not notice this change. This is a study of:
A) inattentional blindness.
B) attentional apathy.
C) neglect syndrome.
D) shadowing.
4. An example of the difference between perception and conscious perception is shown by Moore and Egeth (1997), who showed participants a display containing two horizontal lines and a series of surrounding dots. In one trial the lines and dots were arranged to produce the Müller-Lyer illusion (an illusion that causes two same-length lines to look different in length). In this experiment, MOST participants were:
A) consciously aware of the Müller-Lyer pattern and perceived the two lines to be of the same length.
B) consciously aware of the Müller-Lyer pattern and perceived the two lines to be of different lengths.
C) not consciously aware of the Müller-Lyer pattern and perceived the two lines to be of different lengths.
D) not consciously aware of the Müller-Lyer pattern and perceived the two lines to be of the same length.
5. Attention is necessary for:
A) eye movements.
B) conscious perception.
C) perception.
D) working-memory capacity.
6. Participants are shown a pair of similar pictures separated by a blank interval. The pictures are identical except for a single aspect (e.g., a man is wearing a hat in one scene but not in the other). In these kinds of tasks, participants often find it hard to detect the change. This phenomenon is known as:
A) change identification.
B) change blindness.
C) change perception.
D) change unawareness.
7. A late selection view of attention suggests that:
A) all inputs are fully processed; however, only the attended input reaches consciousness.
B) only the attended input is analyzed; the unattended input receives little analysis.
C) attention can switch back and forth between attended and unattended inputs.
D) analysis of an unattended input is greater than that of the attended input.
8. Priming based on specific expectations about the identity of the upcoming stimulus produces:
A) no benefit for processing if the expectations are correct but slows processing if the expectations are incorrect.
B) a benefit for processing if the expectations are correct but slows processing if the expectations are incorrect.
C) a benefit for processing if the expectations are correct but has no effect on processing if the expectations are incorrect.
D) the same benefit as stimulus-based repetition priming.
9. A patient has suffered brain damage and, as a result, now seems to ignore all information on the left side of her world. If shown words, she reads only the right half of the word; if asked to copy a picture, she copies only the right half. This patient seems to be suffering from:
A) a hemispherectomy.
B) right hemiblindness.
C) parietal syndrome.
D) unilateral neglect syndrome.
10. If we overload attention by giving someone too much to do, we would expect to see what change in feature-binding abilities?
A) Improved feature binding.
B) Errors in feature binding.
C) No change in binding.
D) Feature binding would no longer be possible.
11. Patty is asked to find a red square among a display that also contains blue squares and red circles. This task requires what kind of search process?
A) Feature.
B) Applied.
C) Combination.
D) Spatial location.
12. Participants with either high or low working-memory capacities (WMC) are asked to complete a Stroop task, where words are presented in different colors of ink and participants have to read the color of the word aloud instead of the word. How would you expect the high- and low-WMC groups to perform?
A) High-WMC participants will make more errors than low-WMC participants.
B) Low-WMC participants will make more errors than high-WMC participants.
C) Low-WMC participants will respond faster than high-WMC participants.
D) There will be no difference between high- and low-WMC participants.
13. Stroop interference demonstrates that:
A) word reading is automatized.
B) the identification of a stimulus requires few resources.
C) practice with a color-naming task leads to automaticity.
D) automatic tasks do not exist.
14. Which of the following statements is NOT true about automatic tasks?
A) They do not require many attentional resources.
B) They can be combined with other tasks.
C) They can act as mental reflexes.
D) Executive control cannot override automaticity.
15. Attention is limited in several ways. Sometimes we can complete competing tasks at the same time, but sometimes we cannot because the tasks interfere with each other. Which combination of tasks is likely to cause the LEAST amount of interference?
A) Tasks that require the same task-specific resources.
B) Tasks that require general resources.
C) A task that requires general resources and one that requires task-specific resources.
D) Two tasks that require different task-specific resources.


End of Quiz!

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The correct answers are marked by a "C" in the box before each question. The incorrect questions are marked by an "X".