Acquisition of Memories

Select the BEST response alternative for each of the questions below.

1. One difference between working memory and long-term memory is that:
A) the contents of working memory tend to be in the form of visual images, whereas the contents of long-term memory are often verbal and symbolic.
B) damage to the brain can disrupt working memory, but long-term memory seems not to be similarly vulnerable.
C) long-term memory has a limited capacity, whereas working memory does not.
D) the contents of working memory depend on the content of one's current thinking, but the contents of long-term memory do not.
2. Free recall refers to:
A) word association within a list of words.
B) recalling words from a list in any order.
C) recalling experiences from the past prompted by words within a list.
D) memory that requires few attentional resources.
3. When asked to recall a list of 25 words, participants are likely to remember only some of them. The words they can recall are likely to include:
A) approximately the last 12 words on the list.
B) the first and the last few words on the list.
C) approximately the first 12 words on the list.
D) mostly words from the center of the list.
4. A sudden, loud noise often has the impact of distracting participants long enough to clear the contents of working memory. Imagine that participants hear a list of the names of 20 different fruits, followed by an unexpected loud noise. The effect of the noise will be a diminished:
A) primacy effect but no impact on how well the other words in the list are remembered.
B) mid-list recall effect, making performance equal throughout the entire list.
C) recency effect and a diminished primacy effect but no impact on the middle of the list.
D) recency effect but no impact on how well the other words in the list are remembered.
5. Current theory suggests that the central executive may be:
A) another name for various cognitive resources.
B) used to temporarily store information so that it can be processed later by the rehearsal loop.
C) merely another lower-level assistant.
D) a kind of guidebook for how to "run a program" in the brain.
6. Early estimates of working-memory capacity relied on the digit-span task. The data indicate working memory capacity to be:
A) 10 to 14 items.
B) around 20 items.
C) around 7 items.
D) 2 or 3 items.
7. The operation span of working memory measures the:
A) number of letters that working memory can store.
B) number of sentences that working memory can store.
C) rate of transfer of information from working memory into long-term memory.
D) efficiency with which working memory operates when it is working.
8. Peter has a higher working memory capacity than Josh. Given previous correlational evidence, who would you expect performs better on intelligence tests?
A) Peter.
B) We cannot tell.
C) Josh.
D) They are equally intelligent.
9. The strategy of maintenance rehearsal involves:
A) the repetition of the items to be remembered and the simultaneous consideration of the items' meaning.
B) a focus on the associations between the items to be remembered and other thoughts and ideas.
C) paying attention to the sequence of items, independent of their meaning.
D) the repetition of the items to be remembered, with little attention paid to what the items mean.
10. Week after week, Solomon watched his favorite TV show. He never planned to memorize the characters' names and he never took any steps to memorize them. Nonetheless, he soon knew them all. This sort of learning is called:
A) elaborative.
B) incidental.
C) accidental.
D) intentional.
11. Based on the composite depth of processing data presented in this book, how does the intention to memorize influence how well we learn?
A) It influences learning only with shallow processing.
B) It influences learning only with deep processing.
C) The intention to memorize adds nothing to our ability to learn.
D) It improves our ability to learn, regardless of the depth of processing.
12. Deep processing may lead to improved memory performance because it facilitates retrieval. How exactly does this happen?
A) Deep processing forms many connections between the current item and previous knowledge.
B) Deep processing causes items to be kept in working memory.
C) Deep processing encourages the use of mnemonics.
D) Deep processing forms fewer retrieval paths, making the correct path easier to access.
13. Select the order of processing that MOST accurately represents the probability an item will be retained (most likely > least likely):
A) deep > shallow > maintenance > deep elaborate
B) deep elaborate > deep > shallow > maintenance
C) maintenance > shallow > deep > deep elaborate
D) deep > deep elaborate > shallow > maintenance
14. In general, any technique designed to improve memory is referred to as:
A) a mnemonic strategy.
B) the method of repetition.
C) the method of loci.
D) memory rehearsal.
15. Is memory for complex scenes similar to memory for words?
A) Yes; they both require mnemonics for successful retention.
B) Yes; organization facilitates memory for both types of stimuli.
C) No; complex scenes require different memory strategies than simple words.
D) No; they are dependent on different parts of the brain.

End of Quiz!

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The correct answers are marked by a "C" in the box before each question. The incorrect questions are marked by an "X".