Remembering Complex Events

Select the BEST response alternative for each of the questions below.

1. In a study by Brewer and Treyens (1981), participants waited in an experimenter's office for the experiment to begin. After they left the room, they learned that the study was about their memory of that office. This study demonstrated that:
A) college students do not know what a professor's office typically contains.
B) people make assumptions using prior knowledge about what an academic office typically contains.
C) college students' memories are much worse than the memories of other groups in society.
D) people tend to notice only those items in the environment that most fit with their expectations.
2. Which of the following is a potential problem for memory retrieval in relation to memory connections?
A) If a memory is connected to too many other memories, it can become overused, so it "shuts down" and is forgotten.
B) Establishing a memory connection can often be a lengthy and costly procedure, so memory connections are rare.
C) If two memories become linked, bits of information from one memory can be remembered as part of a different memory.
D) Memory connections can be established only for traumatic memories.
3. Intrusion errors in memory are errors:
A) in which other knowledge intrudes into the remembered event.
B) due to the acquisition stage of memory being interrupted (or intruded upon).
C) in memory due to brain damage, usually as a result of a blow to the head (brain intrusion).
D) in memory due to an impairment in the retrieval process.
4. When presented with a list of words along a theme (e.g., "bed," "rest," "slumber," "dream," "tired"), participants often (mis)recall the theme word as part of the list (e.g., "sleep"). This procedure is commonly referred to as the:
A) Disclusion-Recall-Memory procedure.
B) Decreased-Remembering-Magniture procedure.
C) Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure.
D) Daily-Reconstructing-Mnemonics procedure.
5. Memory schemas, or schemata, serve as representations of our ________ knowledge.
A) innate
B) specific
C) semantic
D) episodic
6. Participants viewed a series of slides depicting an automobile accident. Immediately afterward, half of the participants were asked, "How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?" The other participants were asked, "How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?" One week later, all participants were asked more questions about the slides, including whether they had seen any broken glass in the slides. A comparison of the two groups of participants is likely to show that:
A) participants who were asked the "smashed" question gave higher estimates of speed and were more likely to remember seeing broken glass.
B) the groups gave similar estimates of speed, but the "smashed" group was more likely to remember seeing broken glass.
C) participants who were asked the "smashed" question gave higher estimates of speed, but the groups gave similar responses to the "broken glass" question.
D) the minor difference in how the groups were questioned (hit vs. smashed) was not enough to affect participants' memories.
7. The creation of false memories in someone is possible:
A) only for small details; the gist is remembered accurately.
B) only for events that took place long ago; recent events are remembered accurately.
C) only for neutral or unimportant events; memories that are emotional are accurate.
D) even for the creation of large-scale, entirely false events.
8. By using leading questions and misinformation, researchers have been able to:
A) shape how a real event is remembered, but they have been unable to lead participants into remembering an event that never took place.
B) shape how participants remember the sequence of actions in the event, but they have been unable to change how participants remember the details of an event.
C) shape how participants remember the people who participated in an event, but they have been unable to influence how participants remember the objects present as an event unfolded.
D) alter virtually any aspect of participants' memories and have even been able to create memories for entire events that never took place.
9. An expert is asked to comment on the confidence-accuracy relationship of an eyewitness's report. The expert will state that:
A) the higher the witness's confidence, the more likely it is that the memory is accurate.
B) the lower the witness's confidence, the more likely it is that the memory is accurate.
C) moderate levels of confidence are more likely to indicate that the memory is accurate.
D) confidence levels are a poor indicator of the accuracy of recall.
10. Merlin learned a magic spell (to scare away a dragon) on January 10. He then used that spell on January 18. The 8-day period between these dates is called the:
A) retention interval.
B) interference period.
C) retrieval path.
D) memory span.
11. Evidence suggests that decay:
A) accounts for the vast majority of forgetting.
B) probably explains far less forgetting than interference or retrieval failure.
C) in combination with repression explains virtually all of forgetting.
D) occurs for all memories.
12. Information that is perceived as relevant to the self is better remembered. This is referred to as the:
A) ego directive.
B) autobiographical perspective advantage.
C) self-reference effect.
D) self-importance law.
13. Flashbulb memories are extremely detailed, vivid memories usually associated with highly emotional events. The accuracy of these memories seems:
A) best predicted by the consequentiality of the event to participants' lives.
B) unrelated to any factors researchers have probed so far.
C) remarkably high, identifying these memories as a special class of episodic recall.
D) strongly associated with participants' confidence levels, differentiating flashbulb memories from other forms of memories.

End of Quiz!

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The correct answers are marked by a "C" in the box before each question. The incorrect questions are marked by an "X".