Concepts and Generic Knowledge

Select the BEST response alternative for each of the questions below.

1. It seems unlikely that our conceptual knowledge is represented by mental definitions because:
A) each person has his or her own idea about how concepts should be defined.
B) many of our abstract concepts (e.g., justice, love, God) are difficult to define.
C) it is easy to find exceptions to any proposed definition.
D) most of our concepts are difficult to express in words.
2. According to prototype theory, the mental representation for each concept:
A) represents an average or ideal for the category's members.
B) specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for category membership.
C) is located on the boundary of the category.
D) lists the perceptual features that are found only in that category.
3. The term "basic-level category" refers to the:
A) level of categorization regarded by most participants as indisputable.
B) most general level of categorization participants can think of.
C) most specific level of categorization participants can think of.
D) most natural level of categorization, which is neither too specific nor too general.
4. According to exemplar-based theories of mental categories, participants identify an object by comparing it to a:
A) prototype.
B) single remembered instance of the category.
C) definition.
D) mental image.
5. A mutilated lemon will still be categorized as a lemon, while a counterfeit $20 bill will not be categorized as money. What does this say about categorization?
A) Psychologists will never understand categorization.
B) Category membership cannot be based on resemblance alone.
C) Category membership is based on previously encountered examples.
D) Prototype theory is the most accurate theory of categorization.
6. The text points out that plums and lawn mowers share many traits. This suggests that:
A) there is a strong resemblance between plums and lawn mowers.
B) resemblance is not influenced by shared traits.
C) in judging resemblance, we must determine which traits matter and which do not.
D) distinctive traits, and not shared traits, determine resemblance judgments.
7. Two clinicians are asked to diagnose a patient who shows symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The patient does not show any visible forms of depression. The first clinician believes that depression is an important cause of OCD and so does not diagnose the patient with OCD. The second clinician believes that depression is a by-product of OCD but not a root cause. Therefore, she diagnoses the patient as having OCD. This example illustrates that:
A) our beliefs and background knowledge influence how we categorize things.
B) clinicians are often mistaken in their diagnosis.
C) theories are often fallible and so should not be depended on in many situations.
D) theories are not involved when placing a test case into a particular category.
8. One study found that if participants were told a new fact about robins, they would also believe that the new fact was true of ducks. However, if told a new fact about ducks, participants would not extrapolate this information to robins. This suggests that:
A) participants treat each category member independently (on a case-by-case basis) when applying new beliefs.
B) participants are willing to make inferences from a typical case within a category to the whole category but not vice versa.
C) new knowledge about a member of a category is unstable, leading to a change in a person's belief system only on rare occasions.
D) beliefs within a theory are less likely to affect typical category members than atypical ones.
9. In the TLC model of Collins and Quillian (1969), they suggested that information in memory is organized:
A) vertically.
B) randomly.
C) hierarchically.
D) chronologically.
10. A proposition is defined as:
A) a node in a knowledge network.
B) a unit of knowledge that can be true or false.
C) a unit of knowledge that is stored.
D) the organizational structure of semantic knowledge in memory.

End of Quiz!

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