Language

Directions:
Select the BEST response alternative for each of the questions below.


1. What does it mean for language to be "arbitrary"?
A) The pattern of symbols (words) is not crucial to meaning.
B) There is no necessary relationship between language elements (words) and their meaning.
C) The language elements (words) do not vary, depending on the intended recipient of the communication.
D) Language is constantly changing.
2. The smallest units of language that carry meaning are called:
A) morphemes.
B) phonetic elements.
C) phonemes.
D) words.
3. In overregularization:
A) patients with frontal lobe damage are unable to understand accented speech.
B) children use the same word to apply to many different concepts.
C) linguistic rules get applied in cases where they should not.
D) children begin to lose their ability to discriminate between allophones used in other languages.
4. The original reason for attempting to teach non-human primates language was to:
A) gain insights into human communication processes.
B) determine if primates are able to master the complexities of language.
C) communicate with primates.
D) start using them as a cheap labor force but then they will revolt and fight for their rights, eventually hunt humans and put them in zoos, and finally take over the entire Earth which will from then on be known as, "The Planet of the Apes!"
5. The weak version of the Whorfian hypothesis is the one usually tested by researchers. It states that the language you speak:
A) determines how you will perceive colors.
B) may make it impossible for you to have certain thoughts that would be easily expressible in another language.
C) biases you to think in certain ways.
D) may prevent you from using certain reasoning processes.
6. Hearing the lyrics "...there's a bathroom on the right..." when what was sung was "...there's a bad moon on the rise..." demonstrates that people:
A) can make errors when segmenting phonemes into words.
B) can make errors when retrieving words from their lexicon.
C) make insertion errors when the phonemes they perceive are ambiguous.
D) usually make errors in phoneme perception.
7. If a coughing sound is spliced over a phoneme in mid-sentence, people will:
A) be unable to disambiguate what the phoneme was.
B) not be conscious that they missed a sound and will report having heard a sound that is appropriate given the context.
C) ask the speaker to repeat themselves so that they can disambiguate the phoneme.
D) consciously perceive that they missed a sound and use the context of the sentence to recreate it.
8. You are flipping through channels when you come upon a French-speaking station. You do not speak French and you are amazed at how quickly it is spoken. Which of the following factors is most important to your perception?
A) You are not able to segment the speech sounds into phonemes, making it sound faster.
B) You are not able to produce the speech, therefore you cannot perceive it correctly.
C) You do not know the appropriate pronunciation or syntax rules in French.
D) French phonemes overlap more than English phonemes, making it sound faster.
9. The McGurk effect is when seeing a person's lips move:
A) results in an inability to properly localize sound.
B) results in the perception of sound, even if there was no auditory utterance.
C) in a manner inconsistent with the sound that is heard results in the perception of a sound that is somewhere between the visual and auditory utterance.
D) in a manner inconsistent with the sound that is heard results in the perception of a sound that is consistent with the visual, rather than the auditory percept.
10. The lexicon is a mental dictionary containing the:
A) meaning of spoken words.
B) pronunciation, spelling, and part of speech of words.
C) pronunciation and meaning of words.
D) etymology of words.
11. "The horse raced past the barn fell." This sentence is an example of:
A) a garden path sentence.
B) failure of the syntax parser.
C) evidence of surface dyslexia in normal adult readers.
D) lexical ambiguity.
12. Nonfluent aphasia, in which a patient has good language comprehension but disrupted speech production, is typically associated with damage to:
A) the corpus callosum.
B) Wernicke's area.
C) Broca's area.
D) the sensorimotor area.


End of Quiz!

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The correct answers are marked by a "C" in the box before each question. The incorrect questions are marked by an "X".