Judgment and Reasoning

Directions:
Select the BEST response alternative for each of the questions below.


1. Tony is trying to decide which flavor of gelato his wife would like best. She has never had gelato before, so Tony bases his decision on her favorite kind of ice cream. Tony is using ________ to make his decision.
A) a frequency estimate
B) an attribute substitution
C) a base rate
D) an availability heuristic
2. Heuristics are strategies that:
A) sometimes risk error in order to gain efficiency.
B) are underused, despite their advantages.
C) protect us from overestimating the frequency of real-life events.
D) ensure step-by-step procedures for finding correct conclusions.
3. "I can easily think of the names of several dishonest politicians, so I'm certain there are a lot of dishonest politicians!" This is an example of a judgment relying on:
A) illusory covariation.
B) anchoring.
C) representativeness.
D) the availability heuristic.
4. When we encounter a highly unusual event, we are particularly likely to notice and consider the event. As a consequence:
A) we are likely to think about how distinctive the event really is, leading us to underestimate the likelihood of this type of event.
B) we are likely to think about the event as being in its own special category, so the event will have little impact on our estimates of frequency.
C) the event will be easy to recall, leading us to overestimate the likelihood of this type of event.
D) the event will be difficult to recall, leading us to underestimate the likelihood of this type of event.
5. An employer interviews a job candidate for 15 minutes. On the basis of this interview, the employer decides that the candidate will perform well in the job, so he hires her. This is a case of a:
A) sound decision because the employer is making use of available information.
B) sound decision because the employer is employing base rates.
C) potential error because the employer is assuming that a small sample of information is representative of job performance.
D) potential error because the employer is relying on schema-based reasoning rather than deduction.
6. In one study, participants were shown a film about a family on welfare and then asked for their opinions about welfare. Prior to viewing the film, half of the participants were told that the film showed a highly unusual case. The other participants were told that the film showed a quite typical case. After viewing the film, participants were asked their opinions about welfare. On the basis of other evidence, we would expect to find that:
A) both groups of participants were influenced equally by the film.
B) neither group of participants was influenced by the film.
C) participants who were told that the case was unusual were less influenced by the film than those who viewed the typical case.
D) participants who were told that the case was unusual were not influenced by the film.
7. The term "covariation" refers to:
A) the relationship between the frequency of objects in the world and their availability in memory.
B) the pattern of evidence leading participants to the gambler's fallacy.
C) a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables.
D) the tendency in a pattern of data for observations of one sort to be linked to observations of another sort.
8. People tend to be more alert and responsive to evidence that supports their preexisting notions and beliefs than to evidence that challenges them. This effect is called:
A) base-rate error.
B) confirmation bias.
C) stereotypy.
D) the covariation law.
9. A base rate is defined as information:
A) that helps us to identify which specific candidates have a target property.
B) about the broad likelihood of a particular type of event.
C) indicating the internal variability of a set or category.
D) that can be used to diagnose an individual category member.
10. Studies indicate that participants:
A) always neglect base-rate information.
B) overutilize base-rate information even if other compelling information is presented.
C) make sensible use of base-rate information if no other information is available.
D) tend to integrate base-rate information with diagnostic information.
11. Dual-process models state that people:
A) have two ways of thinking: one is a fast and automatic process (S1), whereas the other is slower but more accurate (S2).
B) have two ways of thinking, one involved in heuristics (S1) and the other involved in anchoring (S2).
C) have two ways of thinking, one involved in availability heuristics (S2) and the other involved in representative heuristics (S1).
D) always take both the base rate and the diagnostic information into consideration when thinking about a situation.
12. An inductive judgment is one in which a person:
A) tries to make predictions about upcoming events on the basis of evidence already available.
B) tries to make a cause-and-effect judgment about an observed state of affairs.
C) begins with a general statement and asks what other specific claims follow from this.
D) begins with specific facts or observations and seeks to draw a general conclusion from them.
13. The four-card task provides an example of how:
A) good we are at reasoning about syllogisms.
B) good we are at reasoning about conditional statements.
C) poor we are at reasoning about conditional statements.
D) poorly we perform on inductive tasks.
14. The expected value of an option is dependent on:
A) the sum of the probability of an outcome and the utility of the outcome.
B) the product of the probability of an outcome and the utility of the outcome.
C) the difference between the probability of an outcome and the utility of the outcome.
D) the difference between the pros and cons of an outcome.


End of Quiz!

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The correct answers are marked by a "C" in the box before each question. The incorrect questions are marked by an "X".