Problem Solving

Select the BEST response alternative for each of the questions below.

1. In order to solve a problem, people make use of operators. These are:
A) actions or tools used to help change a person's current state in relation to the problem.
B) units of knowledge that a person has at the beginning of the problem.
C) equivalent to a person's IQ.
D) a set of constraints or limitations ruling out some solutions to the problem.
2. All of the states one can reach in solving a problem together make up the:
A) operators.
B) problem definition.
C) pathways.
D) problem space.
3. A problem-solving heuristic is:
A) guaranteed to find a problem solution, if one exists.
B) a strategy that guides a search through the problem space.
C) likely to be less effective than a strategy such as hill climbing or means-end analysis.
D) needed for unfamiliar problems but not for familiar problems.
4. Herbert solved the "tumor" problem by using an analogy with the "general and fortress" problem. In doing this, he realized that "tumor" corresponds to "fortress," "radiation" corresponds to "attacking army," and so on. The process of determining these correspondences is called:
A) translating.
B) analogizing.
C) mapping.
D) parsing.
5. In many studies, participants fail to use analogies as an aid to problem solving. Of the following, which is the MOST plausible explanation of this fact?
A) Participants do not understand the value of analogies, so they do not bother searching for them.
B) Participants search their memories based on the surface structure of the problem and thus fail to think of many useful analogies.
C) Participants pay too much attention to the deep structure of a problem, and so they fail to see the features that lead to analogy.
D) Participants seem unable to use analogies even when explicitly instructed to do so.
6. People often compare experts to novices. Which of the following claims about this comparison is NOT true?
A) Experts tend to be more-skilled problem solvers in general, so they have an advantage even with unfamiliar problems.
B) Experts have a much larger knowledge base, including a large set of exemplars on which they can draw.
C) Experts are more familiar with the higher-order patterns common in the area of expertise.
D) Expert knowledge is more heavily cross-referenced and is therefore more easily accessible.
7. One way to turn an ill-defined question into a well-defined question is to:
A) add extra constraints or assumptions to the problem so that it has more structure.
B) make the question less specific.
C) make the question rhetorical.
D) remove any clear or concrete goal state from the problem.
8. In solving a problem, participants seem to develop a certain attitude or perspective, and they then approach all subsequent problems with the same attitude. This rigidity in approach is often called:
A) transfer.
B) mental inhibition.
C) Einstellung.
D) Zeitgeist.
9. Participants approach a problem with certain assumptions about how the problem should be handled and the sorts of strategies that are likely to be productive. These assumptions are referred to as:
A) functional fixedness.
B) a problem frame.
C) well-definedness.
D) a problem-solving set.

End of Quiz!

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The correct answers are marked by a "C" in the box before each question. The incorrect questions are marked by an "X".